Antibiotic Resistance in

Embrace a One-Health approach in your research and monitor antibiotic resistance in wildlife

Antibiotic Resistance in
Water Environments


"Because the presence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and their AMR genes in water, wastewater, wastewater-irrigated foods and aquacultural systems is now widely recognized, greater and more harmonized consideration of them as an environmental health hazard is needed.”

Wash For Health, World Health Organization

Antibiotic resistant bacteria and resistance genes contained in human and animal waste are released into surface waters from wastewater treatment plants, sewage overflows, and in run-off from agricultural fields fertilised with manure. These contaminated water environments may then act as exposure routes to humans and animals, particularly if the contaminated water is used for agricultural irrigation, drinking water production, or leisure activities such as swimming. Water environments may also facilitate the emergence and the spread of resistance to different places. We support the goals of the European Green Deal and seek to protect aquatic environments.

Various wild animals have been shown to carry antibiotic resistant bacteria, particularly those that inhabit and forage in environments impacted by humans. As such, some wild animals may serve as useful indicators of environmental resistomes and provide important information about how antibiotic resistance is transmitted to and from different environments.


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